A problem from the 1994 Italian Mathematical Olympiad:
Every inhabitant on the island of knights and scoundrels is either a knight (who always tells the truth) or a scoundrel (who always lies). A visiting journalist interviews each inhabitant exactly once and gets the following answers:
A_{1}: On this island there is at least one scoundrel.
A_{2}: On this island there are at least two scoundrels.
…
A_{n1}: On this island there are at least n – 1 scoundrels.
A_{n}: On this island everyone is a scoundrel.
Can the journalist decide whether the knights outnumber the scoundrels?

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I don’t have the olympiad solution, but it seems to me that there must be an equal number of knights and scoundrels. The first half of the interviewees are knights, and the second half are scoundrels.
If there were more than n/2 knights, then they’d crowd out the scoundrels and their greater claims could not be true.
If there were more than n/2 scoundrels, then they’d crowd out the knights and their lesser claims could not be false.
UPDATE: Also, n must be even. If it’s odd, then the middle interviewee can be neither a knight nor a scoundrel, which is impossible. Thanks to those who wrote in to point this out.
