Podcast Episode 45: Crossing Africa for Love

https://books.google.com/books?id=MT4uAQAAIAAJ

When Ewart Grogan was denied permission to marry his sweetheart, he set out to walk the length of Africa to prove himself worthy of her. In this week’s episode of the Futility Closet podcast we’ll find out whether Ewart’s romantic quest succeeded.

We’ll also get an update on the criminal history of Donald Duck’s hometown, and try to figure out how a groom ends up drowning on his wedding night.

Sources for our segment on Ewart Grogan’s traversal of Africa:

Ewart Scott Grogan and Arthur Henry Sharp, From the Cape to Cairo: The First Traverse of Africa From South to North, 1902.

Edward Paice, Lost Lion of Empire: The Life of Cape-to-Cairo Grogan, 2001.

Julian Smith, Crossing the Heart of Africa: An Odyssey of Love and Adventure, 2010.

Norman Wymer, The Man From the Cape, 1959.

Martin Dugard, The Explorers, 2014.

Brian O’Brien, “All for the Love of a Lady,” in The Best of Field and Stream: 100 Years of Great Writing from America’s Premier Sporting Magazine, 2002.

“One Incredibly Long Church Aisle,” Times Higher Education, June 15, 2001.

“A Man Who Did Derring-Do,” Telegraph, March 31, 2001.

Listener Ed Kitson directed us to this letter from Jane Baillie Welsh to Thomas Carlyle, dated May 7, 1822, in which she writes, “I am not at all the sort of person you and I took me for.”

And listener Alex Klapheke sent us a copy of Swiss criminologist Karl-Ludwig Kunz’s 2004 paper “Criminal Policy in Duckburg,” from Images of Crime II: Representations of Crime and the Criminal in Politics, Society, the Media, and the Arts, edited by Hans-Jörg Albrecht, Telemach Serassis, and Harald Kania.

This week’s lateral thinking puzzle was contributed by listener Price Tipping.

You can listen using the player above, download this episode directly, or subscribe on iTunes or via the RSS feed at http://feedpress.me/futilitycloset.

Please consider becoming a patron of Futility Closet — on our Patreon page you can pledge any amount per episode, and all contributions are greatly appreciated. You can change or cancel your pledge at any time, and we’ve set up some rewards to help thank you for your support.

You can also make a one-time donation via the Donate button in the sidebar of the Futility Closet website.

Many thanks to Doug Ross for the music in this episode.

If you have any questions or comments you can reach us at podcast@futilitycloset.com. Thanks for listening!

Black and White

shinkman chess problem

By W.A. Shinkman. This is a self-mate in two moves: White makes a move, Black is allowed to make any legal reply, then White plays a second move that forces Black to checkmate him.

Click for Answer

All for One

A flock of starlings masses near sunset over Gretna Green in Scotland, preparatory to roosting after a day’s foraging. The flock’s shape has a mesmerisingly fluid quality, flowing, stretching, rippling, and merging with itself. Similarly massive flocks form over Rome and over the marshlands of western Denmark, where more than a million migrating starlings form an enormous display known as the “black sun.”

What rules produce this behavior? In the 1970s scientists thought that the birds might be following an electrostatic field produced by the leader. Earler, in the 1930s, one paper even suggested that they use thought transference.

But in 1986 computer graphics expert Craig Reynolds found that he could create a lifelike virtual flock (below) using a surprisingly simple set of rules: direct each bird to avoid crowding nearby flockmates, steer toward the average heading of nearby flockmates, and move toward the center of mass of nearby flockmates.

Studies with real birds seem to bear this out: Under rules like these a flock can react sensitively to a change in direction by any of its members, permitting the whole group to respond efficiently as one organism. “News of a predator’s approach can be communicated rapidly through the flock by whichever of the hundreds of birds on the outside notice it first,” writes Gavin Pretor-Pinney in The Wavewatcher’s Companion. “When under attack by a peregrine falcon, for instance, starling flocks will contract into a ball and then peel away in a ribbon to distract and confuse the predator.”

“Illustrated Verse”

slow, But if it breaks it comes down
  up
 goes
elevator
  The                            so.

Yale Record, 1900-1919

A Holiday Puzzle

New Year’s Day normally falls one week after Christmas: If Christmas falls on a Thursday, then New Year’s Day will fall on a Thursday as well. What is the most recent year in which Christmas and New Year’s Day fell on different days of the week?

Click for Answer

Versatile

Utica College mathematician Hossein Behforooz devised this “permutation-free” magic square in 2007:

Behforooz magic square

Each row, column, and long diagonal totals 2775, and this remains true if the digits within all 25 cells are permuted in the same way — for example, if we exchange the first two digits of each number, changing 231 to 321, etc., the square retains its magic sum of 2775. Further:

231 + 659 + 973 + 344 + 568 = 2775
979 + 234 + 653 + 341 + 568 = 2775
231 + 343 + 568 + 654 + 979 = 2775
564 + 979 + 233 + 348 + 651 = 2775
231 + 654 + 563 + 978 + 349 = 2775
231 + 348 + 654 + 979 + 563 = 2775

And these combinations of cells maintain their magic totals when their contents are permuted in the same way.

(Hossein Behforooz, “Mirror Magic Squares From Latin Squares,” Mathematical Gazette, July 2007.)

Palinmorses

Morse code palindromes, contributed by reader Dave Lawrence:

ANNEXING ·- -· -· · -··- ·· -· --·
BEEFIEST -··· · · ··-· ·· · ··· -
DEFOREST -·· · ··-· --- ·-· · ··· -
ESTHETES · ··· - ···· · - · ···
FINAGLED ··-· ·· -· ·- --· ·-·· · -··
HEARTIES ···· · ·- ·-· - ·· · ···
HECTARES ···· · -·-· - ·- ·-· · ···
INDEBTED ·· -· -·· · -··· - · -··
INTERNAL ·· -· - · ·-· -· ·- ·-··
INTUITED ·· -· - ··- ·· - · -··
RECENTER ·-· · -·-· · -· - · ·-·
SATIATES ··· ·- - ·· ·- - · ···
SEVENTHS ··· · ···- · -· - ···· ···
SHEEPISH ··· ···· · · ·--· ·· ··· ····
SOPRANOS ··· --- ·--· ·-· ·- -· --- ···
SUBHEADS ··· ··- -··· ···· · ·- -·· ···
WAVERING ·-- ·- ···- · ·-· ·· -· --·
WRECKING ·-- ·-· · -.-· -.- ·· -· --·
ANTICKING ·- -· - ·· -·-· -·- ·· -· --·
FOOTSTOOL ··-· --- --- - ··· - --- --- ·-··
FRESHENED ··-· ·-· · ··· ···· · -· · -··
INCIDENCE ·· -· -·-· ·· -·· · -· -·-· ·
SATURATES ··· ·- - ··- ·-· ·- - · ···
SIDELINES ··· ·· -·· · ·-·· ·· -· · ···
INITIALLED ·· -· ·· - ·· ·- ·-·· ·-·· · -··
INTERSTICE ·· -· - · ·-· ··· - ·· -·-· ·
RESEARCHER ·-· · ··· · ·- ·-· -·-· ···· · ·-·
WINTERTIME ·-- ·· -· - · ·-· - ·· -- ·
ANTIQUATING ·- -· - ·· --·- ··- ·- - ·· -· --·
INTERPRETED ·· -· - · ·-· ·--· ·-· · - · -··
PROTECTORATE ·--· ·-· --- - · -·-· - --- ·-· ·- - ·
INTRANSIGENCE ·· -· - ·-· ·- -· ··· ·· --· · -· -·-· ·

He notes that, perhaps fittingly, the word with the longest run of dots is OBSESSIVE, with 18: --- -··· ··· · ··· ··· ·· ···- ·

Oops

In 1945, the Arkansas legislature passed “An Act to Authorize and Permit Cities of First and Second Class and Incorporated Towns to Vacate Public Streets and Alleys in the Public Interest.” That seems boring enough. But § 8 read as follows:

“All laws and parts of laws, and particularly Act 311 of the Acts of 1941, are hereby repealed.”

With the stroke of a pen they had repealed every law in Arkansas. The state supreme court cleared its throat and ventured an improvement:

“No doubt the legislature meant to repeal all laws in conflict with that act, and, by error of the author or the typist, left out the usual words ‘in conflict herewith,’ which we will imply by necessary construction.”

(Act 17 of 1945 [repl. 1980; now Ark. Stat. § 14-301-301], cited in Antonin Scalia and Bryan Garner, Reading Law, 2012.)

Precautions

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Duell_im_Regen.JPG

I should have wished also to have referred to some of the serio-comic duels, such as that fought by the famous critic Sainte-Beuve against M. Dubois, of the Globe newspaper. When the adversaries arrived on the ground it was raining heavily. Sainte-Beuve had brought an umbrella and some sixteenth-century flint-lock pistols. When the signal to fire was about to be given, Sainte-Beuve still kept his umbrella open. The seconds protested, but Sainte-Beuve resisted, saying, ‘I am quite ready to be killed, but I do not wish to catch cold.’

— Theodore Child, “Duelling in Paris,” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, March 1887

Switching Visits

A prison warden greets 23 new prisoners with this challenge. They can meet now to plan a strategy, but then they’ll be placed in separate cells, with no means of communicating. Then the warden will take the prisoners one at a time to a room that contains two switches. Each switch has two positions, on and off, but they’re not connected to anything. The prisoners don’t know the initial positions of the switches. When a prisoner is led into the room, he must reverse the position of exactly one switch. Then he will be led back to his cell, and the switches will remain undisturbed until the warden brings the next prisoner. The warden chooses prisoners at his whim, and he may even choose one prisoner several times in a row, but at any time, each prisoner is guaranteed another visit to the switch room.

The warden continues doing this until a prisoner tells him, “We have all visited the switch room.” If this prisoner is right, then all the prisoner will be set free. But if he’s wrong then they’ll all remain prisoners for life.

What strategy can the prisoners use to ensure their freedom?

Click for Answer
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