Six boys are accused of stealing apples. Exactly two are guilty. Which two? When the boys are questioned, Harry names Charlie and George, James names Donald and Tom, Donald names Tom and Charlie, George names Harry and Charlie, and Charlie names Donald and James. Tom can’t be found. Four of the boys who were questioned named one guilty boy correctly and one incorrectly, and the fifth lied outright. Who stole the apples?

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In presenting this problem in Ingenuity in Mathematics, Ross Honsberger gave a complex analysis, but his friend Scott Vanstone showed a simple way to visualize it, building on an observation by John Annulis:
Each boy is represented by a point, and each pair of boys named in an accusation are joined by a line. Now we know that each line has a thief at one end and an innocent at the other, except for one line, which has an innocent at both ends (due to the outright liar). Since four boys named one guilty boy correctly, the two points that represent the thieves are attached to a total of four lines. And because no boy made two accurate accusations, the thieves themselves are not joined by a line. The only two points that satisfy all these requirements indicate Charlie and James.
