Puzzles

No Touching

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Scale_(PSF).png

This scale balances a cup of water with a certain weight. Will the balance be upset if you put your finger in the water, if you’re careful not to touch the glass?

Click for Answer

Black and White

koltanowski chess problem

A curious puzzle by George Koltanowski, from America Salutes Comins Mansfield, 1983. “Who mates in 1?”

Click for Answer

Counter Play

http://books.google.com/books?id=XKECAAAAYAAJ&printsec=toc&rview=1&source=gbs_navlinks_s

A puzzle by Lewis Carroll:

A bag contains one counter, known to be either white or black. A white counter is put in, the bag shaken, and a counter drawn out, which proves to be white. What is now the chance of drawing a white counter?

Click for Answer

Spear Fight

http://www.sxc.hu/photo/609376

A puzzle by Henry Dudeney:

A lady is accustomed to buy from her greengrocer large bundles of asparagus, each twelve inches in circumference. The other day the man had no large bundles in stock, but handed her instead two small ones, each six inches in circumference. “That is the same thing,” she said, “and, of course, the price will be the same.” But the man insisted that the two bundles together contained more than the large one, and charged a few pence extra. Which was correct — the lady or the greengrocer?

Click for Answer

Black and White

smullyan sherlock holmes chess problem 1

Raymond Smullyan presented this puzzle on the cover of his excellent 1979 book The Chess Mysteries of Sherlock Holmes. Black moved last. What was his move?

Click for Answer

Lazy Tennis

You’ve just won a set of singles tennis. What’s the least number of times your racket can have struck the ball? Remember that if you miss the ball while serving, it’s a fault.

Click for Answer

Twisted Math

The Renaissance mathematician Niccolò Tartaglia would use this bewildering riddle to assess neophytes in logic:

If half of 5 were 3, what would a third of 10 be?

What’s the answer?

Click for Answer

Stride Right

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:ImLuxenmbourgGardenJWely1901.jpg

A mother takes two strides to her daughter’s three. If they set out walking together, each starting with the right foot, when will they first step together with the left?

Click for Answer

Black and White

charosh chess puzzle

By M. Charosh, from the Fairy Chess Review, 1937. White to mate in zero moves.

Click for Answer

The Lodging-House Difficulty

A puzzle by Henry Dudeney:

dudeney lodging-house difficulty

The Dobsons secured apartments at Slocomb-on-Sea. There were six rooms on the same floor, all communicating, as shown in the diagram. The rooms they took were numbers 4, 5, and 6, all facing the sea.

But a little difficulty arose. Mr. Dobson insisted that the piano and the bookcase should change rooms. This was wily, for the Dobsons were not musical, but they wanted to prevent any one else playing the instrument.

Now, the rooms were very small and the pieces of furniture indicated were very big, so that no two of these articles could be got into any room at the same time. How was the exchange to be made with the least possible labour? Suppose, for example, you first move the wardrobe into No. 2; then you can move the bookcase to No. 5 and the piano to No. 6, and so on.

It is a fascinating puzzle, but the landlady had reasons for not appreciating it. Try to solve her difficulty in the fewest possible removals with counters on a sheet of paper.

Click for Answer

Seven Tails

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:2005-Penny-Uncirculated-Obverse-cropped.png

Here are seven pennies, all heads up. In a single move you can turn over any four of them. By repeatedly making such moves, can you eventually turn all seven pennies tails up?

Click for Answer

Black and White

http://books.google.com/books?id=LTgCAAAAQAAJ

By Francis Healey. White to mate in two moves.

Click for Answer

Opposites Exact

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Equator.gif

Prove that, at any given moment, there are two points on the equator that are diametrically opposed yet have the same temperature.

Click for Answer

Black and White

http://books.google.com/books?id=JnQZAAAAYAAJ

By J.H. Finlinson. White to mate in two moves.

Click for Answer

Injured List

Another puzzle from Henry Dudeney:

“It is a glorious game!” an enthusiast was heard to exclaim. “At the close of last season, of the footballers of my acquaintance, four had broken their left arm, five had broken their right arm, two had the right arm sound, and three had sound left arms.” Can you discover from that statement what is the smallest number of players that the speaker could be acquainted with?

Click for Answer

The Dwarfs Problem

From the 1977 all-Soviet-Union Mathematical Olympiad:

Seven dwarfs are sitting at a round table. Each has a cup, and some cups contain milk. Each dwarf in turn pours all his milk into the other six cups, dividing it equally among them. After the seventh dwarf has done this, they find that each cup again contains its initial quantity of milk. How much milk does each cup contain, if there were 42 ounces of milk altogether?

Click for Answer

Tiling Task

tiling task 1

We’ve removed two squares from this 7×8 grid, so that it numbers 54 squares. Can it be covered orthogonally with tiles like the one at right, each of which covers exactly three squares?

Click for Answer

The Two Poles

dudeney poles puzzle

A puzzle by Henry Dudeney:

A man planted two poles upright in level ground. One pole was six and a half feet and the other seven feet seven inches above ground. From the top of each pole he tied a string to the bottom of the other — just where it entered the ground. Now, what height above the ground was the point where the two strings crossed one another? The hasty reader will perhaps say, “You have forgotten to tell us how far the poles were apart.” But that point is of no consequence whatever, as it does not affect the answer!

Click for Answer

Black and White

http://books.google.com/books?id=JnQZAAAAYAAJ

By R.F. Bennett. White to mate in two moves.

Click for Answer

Out of Rank

beasley chess puzzle

A puzzle from John Beasley’s The Mathematics of Games (2006): Black has just moved. What is the smallest number of moves that can have been played in this game?

Click for Answer

Drinking Problem

I have a 16-ounce bottle of wine and want to make it last as long as possible, so I establish the following plan: On the first day I’ll drink 1 ounce of wine and refill the bottle with water. On the second day I’ll drink 2 ounces of the mixture and refill the bottle with water. On the third day I’ll drink three ounces of the mixture and again refill the bottle with water. If I continue until the bottle is empty, how many ounces of water will I have drunk?

Click for Answer

Weighty Matters

I’ve accidentally turned the calibration dial on my bathroom scale, so its readings are skewed by a consistent amount. Apart from that it works fine, though. When I stand on the scale it reads 170 pounds, when my wife stands on it it reads 130, and when we stand on it together it reads 292 pounds. How should I adjust the scale?

Click for Answer

Black and White

http://books.google.com/books?id=3FpAAAAAYAAJ

From Alexander H. Robbins, A Collection of Chess Problems, 1887. White to mate in two moves.

Click for Answer

Black and White

BCM chess problem

From the British Chess Magazine, January 1899. White to mate in two.

Click for Answer