Podcast

The Futility Closet podcast is a weekly show featuring forgotten stories from the pages of history. Join us each Monday for surprising and curious tales from the past and to challenge yourself with our lateral thinking puzzles.

You can listen using the streaming players below, or subscribe by RSS or by clicking one of these buttons:

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Support us on Patreon to get behind-the-scenes news, outtakes, extra lateral thinking puzzles, and more.

If you have any questions or comments, please write to us at podcast@futilitycloset.com. Thanks for listening!

Podcast Episode 136: The Boston Molasses Disaster

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:BostonMolassesDisaster.jpg

In 1919 a bizarre catastrophe struck Boston’s North End: A giant storage tank failed, releasing 2 million gallons of molasses into a crowded business district at the height of a January workday. In this week’s episode of the Futility Closet podcast we’ll tell the story of the Boston Molasses Disaster, which claimed 21 lives and inscribed a sticky page into the city’s history books.

We’ll also admire some Scandinavian statistics and puzzle over a provocative Facebook photo.

Intro:

In 1888 three women reported encountering a 15-foot flying serpent in the woods near Columbia, S.C.

In 1834 the American Journal of Science and Arts reported the capture of a pair of conjoined catfish near Fort Johnston, N.C.

Sources for our feature on the Boston Molasses Disaster:

Stephen Puleo, Dark Tide: The Great Boston Molasses Flood of 1919, 2003.

Fred Durso Jr., “The Great Boston Molasses Flood of 1919,” NFPA Journal 105:3 (May/June 2011), 90-93.

Sean Potter, “Retrospect: January 15, 1919: Boston Molasses Flood,” Weatherwise 64:1 (January/February 2011), 10-11.

Kaylie Duffy, “Today in Engineering History: Molasses Tanker Explodes, Kills 21,” Product Design & Development, Jan. 15, 2015.

Steve Puleo, “Death by Molasses,” American History 35:6 (February 2001), 60-66.

Chuck Lyons, “A Sticky Tragedy,” History Today 59.1 (January 2009), 40-42.

Dick Sinnott, “21 Persons Drowned in Molasses Flood,” Reading [Pa.] Eagle, Jan. 15, 1959.

Edwards Park, “Without Warning, Molasses in January Surged Over Boston,” Smithsonian 14:8 (November 1983), 213-230.

“12 Killed When Tank of Molasses Explodes,” New York Times, Jan. 16, 1919.

Ferris Jabr, “The Science of the Great Molasses Flood,” Scientific American, Aug. 1, 2013.

United Press International, “The Great Boston Molasses Disaster of 1919,” Jan. 17, 1979.

Peter Schworm, “Nearly a Century Later, Structural Flaw in Molasses Tank Revealed,” Boston Globe, Jan. 14, 2015.

William J. Kole, “Slow as Molasses? Sweet but Deadly 1919 Disaster Explained,” Associated Press, Nov. 24, 2016.

Erin McCann, “Solving a Mystery Behind the Deadly ‘Tsunami of Molasses’ of 1919,” New York Times, Nov. 26, 2016. (The corn syrup video is midway down the page.)

Jason Daley, “The Sticky Science Behind the Deadly Boston Molasses Disaster,” Smithsonian, Nov. 28, 2016.

Jennifer Ouellette, “Incredible Physics Behind the Deadly 1919 Boston Molasses Flood,” New Scientist, Nov. 24, 2016.

The Boston Public Library has photos and newspaper headlines.

Listener mail:

Erik Bye’s song on the 15th Wisconsin Regiment:

Statistics Norway’s names database.

Wikipedia, “Old Norse” (accessed Jan. 5, 2017).

This week’s lateral thinking puzzle was contributed by listener Tommy Honton, who sent this corroborating link (warning — this spoils the puzzle).

You can listen using the player above, download this episode directly, or subscribe on iTunes or Google Play Music or via the RSS feed at http://feedpress.me/futilitycloset.

Please consider becoming a patron of Futility Closet — on our Patreon page you can pledge any amount per episode, and we’ve set up some rewards to help thank you for your support. You can also make a one-time donation on the Support Us page of the Futility Closet website.

Many thanks to Doug Ross for the music in this episode.

If you have any questions or comments you can reach us at podcast@futilitycloset.com. Thanks for listening!

Podcast Episode 135: Lateral Thinking Puzzles

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Thinking#mediaviewer/File:Mono_pensador.jpg

Here are six new lateral thinking puzzles to test your wits and stump your friends — play along with us as we try to untangle some perplexing situations using yes-or-no questions.

Below are the sources for this week’s puzzles. In a few places we’ve included links to further information — these contain spoilers, so don’t click until you’ve listened to the episode:

Puzzle #1 was devised by Sharon. Here’s some more information.

Puzzle #2 was contributed by listener Jon Sweitzer-Lamme, who sent these corroborating links.

Puzzle #3 is from listener Jonathan Knoell.

Puzzle #4 is from listener Nick Hare.

Puzzle #5 is from Paul Sloane and Des MacHale’s 2014 book Remarkable Lateral Thinking Puzzles.

Puzzle #6 was devised by Greg. Here’s a link.

You can listen using the player above, download this episode directly, or subscribe on iTunes or Google Play Music or via the RSS feed at http://feedpress.me/futilitycloset.

Please consider becoming a patron of Futility Closet — on our Patreon page you can pledge any amount per episode, and we’ve set up some rewards to help thank you for your support. You can also make a one-time donation on the Support Us page of the Futility Closet website.

If you have any questions or comments you can reach us at podcast@futilitycloset.com. Thanks for listening!

Podcast Episode 134: The Christmas Truce

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Illustrated_London_News_-_Christmas_Truce_1914.jpg

In December 1914 a remarkable thing happened on the Western Front: British and German soldiers stopped fighting and left their trenches to greet one another, exchange souvenirs, bury their dead, and sing carols in the spirit of the holiday season. In this week’s episode of the Futility Closet podcast we’ll tell the story of the Christmas truce, which one participant called “one of the highlights of my life.”

We’ll also remember James Thurber’s Aunt Sarah and puzzle over an anachronistic twin.

Intro:

In 1898, G.W. Roberts of Birmingham made a full-size piano from 3,776 matchboxes and 5 pounds of glue.

In 1892, 69 men raced 302 miles on stilts, from Bordeaux to Bayonne and Biarritz and back.

Sources for our feature on the Christmas truce:

Terri Blom Crocker, The Christmas Truce: Myth, Memory, and the First World War, 2016.

Stanley Weintraub, Silent Night: The Story of the World War I Christmas Truce, 2001.

Chris Baker, The Truce: The Day the War Stopped, 2014.

Peter Hart, “Christmas Truce,” Military History 31:5 (January 2015), 64-70.

Joe Perry, Christmas in Germany: A Cultural History, 2010.

Ian Herbert, “Muddy Truth of the Christmas Truce Game,” Independent, Dec. 24, 2014.

David Brown, “Remembering a Victory For Human Kindness,” Washington Post, Dec. 25, 2004.

“Alfred Anderson, 109, Last Man From ‘Christmas Truce’ of 1914,” New York Times, Nov. 22, 2005.

“The Christmas Truce, 1914,” The Henry Williamson Society (accessed Dec. 16, 2016).

Mike Dash, “The Story of the WWI Christmas Truce,” Smithsonian, Dec. 23, 2011.

Stephen Moss, “Truce in the Trenches Was Real, But Football Tales Are a Shot in the Dark,” Guardian, Dec. 16, 2014.

Listener mail:

Kirk Ross, The Sky Men: A Parachute Rifle Company’s Story of the Battle of the Bulge and the Jump Across the Rhine, 2004.

A short version of the barrel-of-bricks episode from MythBusters:

Listener Daniel Sterman recommends the original episode, “Barrel of Bricks,” from Oct. 10, 2003.

Wikipedia, “Sandman (Wesley Dodds)” (accessed Dec. 16, 2016).

Wikipedia, “Sala Gang” (accessed Dec. 16, 2016).

This week’s lateral thinking puzzle was suggested by listeners Greg Askins, Stacey Irvine, and Donald Mates. Here are three corroborating links (warning — these spoil the puzzle).

You can listen using the player above, download this episode directly, or subscribe on iTunes or Google Play Music or via the RSS feed at http://feedpress.me/futilitycloset.

Please consider becoming a patron of Futility Closet — on our Patreon page you can pledge any amount per episode, and we’ve set up some rewards to help thank you for your support. You can also make a one-time donation on the Support Us page of the Futility Closet website.

Many thanks to Doug Ross for the music in this episode.

If you have any questions or comments you can reach us at podcast@futilitycloset.com. Thanks for listening!

Podcast Episode 133: Notes and Queries

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Samuel_L_Clemens,_1909.jpg

In this week’s episode of the Futility Closet podcast we’ll explore some more curiosities and unanswered questions from Greg’s research, including a pilot who saved Buckingham Palace, a ghost who confronted Arthur Conan Doyle, what Mark Twain learned from a palm reader, and a bedeviling superfluity of Norwegians.

We’ll also discover a language used only by women and puzzle over a gift that’s best given sparingly.

Intro:

Horatio Nelson’s coffin was fashioned from the mast of a French flagship that he had defeated.

In 1994 the city council of Green River, Wyoming, designated an airstrip south of town as an “intergalactic spaceport.”

Sources for our feature on notes and queries:

The story of the Singapore tiger shooting appears in this history of the Raffles hotel.

Neil Kagan’s 2013 book The Untold Civil War alleges that the 15th Wisconsin Volunteer Regiment was so thick with Norwegians that it contained dozens of men named Ole Olson. The Norwegian American Genealogical Center says that the Roster of Wisconsin Volunteers shows that the 15th had 128 men whose first name was Ole, and 75 men whose last name was Olson, Olsen, or Oleson, but just 15 whose names were Ole Olson, Ole Olsen, or Ole Oleson.

The anecdote about the Gettysburg ordinance is mentioned in Michael Sanders’ 2006 More Strange Tales of the Civil War, which cites Gregory A. Coco’s A Strange and Blighted Land, Gettysburg: The Aftermath of a Battle, 1995. I found it in Allen C. Guelzo’s Gettysburg: The Last Invasion, 2013.

Frances Wilson describes Titanic survivor Lawrence Beesley’s visit to the set of A Night to Remember in her 2011 book How to Survive the Titanic, Or The Sinking of J. Bruce Ismay.

The observation about John Ford’s eye for camerawork appears in Robert L. Carringer’s 1996 book The Making of Citizen Kane.

Dan Murphy’s Puritan name is spelled out in Willard R. Espy’s An Almanac of Words at Play, 1975. (I first wrote about unusual Puritan names in 2009.) The two long names cited by H.L. Mencken appear in his 1921 study The American Language.

Douglas Hofstadter describes Stanford art professor Matt Kahn’s confetti illusion in his foreword to Al Seckel’s 2004 book Masters of Deception.

Mark Twain wrote about Cheiro’s prophecy in his notebook in 1903. His affidavit regarding the palmist’s insight into his character is described in Sarah E. Chinn’s 2000 book Technology and the Logic of American Racism.

Three sources regarding Georges Simenon’s prolificity:

Stanley G. Eskin, Simenon, A Critical Biography, 1987.

Henry Anatole Grunwald, “World’s Most Prolific Novelist,” Life 45:18 (Nov. 3, 1958).

Aubrey Dillon-Malone, Stranger Than Fiction: A Book of Literary Lists, 1999.

Also in Stranger Than Fiction, Dillon-Malone says that Anthony Trollope’s quota of seven pages a day would sometimes carry him out of one book and into the next. Dillon-Malone says he’s quoting Malcolm Cowley, who indeed says as much in this Paris Review interview, but I’d like to confirm the anecdote.

British fighter pilot Ray Holmes’ severing of a Dornier bomber’s tail is depicted in this painting. In his 2010 book Royal Prayer: A Surprising History, David Baldwin says “the whole engagement was captured on film,” but I’ve never been able to find it. The best I’ve found is the opening moments of this National Geographic documentary:

The anecdote about Arthur Conan Doyle in Africa is from Russell Miller’s 2008 book The Adventures of Arthur Conan Doyle: A Biography.

Among other places, the story about Kant’s soul appears in Arthur Stone Dewing’s 1903 Introduction to the History of Modern Philosophy.

And Cornelia Parker’s comment about her conversation with Noam Chomsky appears in “Apocalypse Later,” Guardian, Feb. 11, 2008.

Listener mail:

Noah Shachtman, “They Cracked This 250-Year-Old Code, and Found a Secret Society Inside,” Wired, Nov. 16, 2012.

Wikipedia, “Copiale cipher” (accessed Dec. 8, 2016).

“Scientists Crack Mysterious ‘Copiale Cipher,'” Guardian, Oct. 26, 2011.

Jon Watts, “The Forbidden Tongue,” Guardian, Sept. 23, 2005.

Wikipedia, “Nüshu script” (accessed Dec. 8, 2016).

David Kahn, The Codebreakers, 1967.

This week’s lateral thinking puzzle is from Paul Sloane and Des MacHale’s 2014 book Remarkable Lateral Thinking Puzzles.

You can listen using the player above, download this episode directly, or subscribe on iTunes or Google Play Music or via the RSS feed at http://feedpress.me/futilitycloset.

Please consider becoming a patron of Futility Closet — on our Patreon page you can pledge any amount per episode, and we’ve set up some rewards to help thank you for your support. You can also make a one-time donation on the Support Us page of the Futility Closet website.

Many thanks to Doug Ross for the music in this episode.

If you have any questions or comments you can reach us at podcast@futilitycloset.com. Thanks for listening!

Podcast Episode 132: The Mad Gasser of Mattoon

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Peeping_Tom_.jpg
Image: Wikimedia Commons

In 1944, a bizarre criminal assaulted the small town of Mattoon, Illinois. Victims reported smelling a sickly sweet odor in their bedrooms before being overcome with nausea and a feeling of paralysis. In this week’s episode of the Futility Closet podcast we’ll pursue the mad gasser of Mattoon, who vanished as quickly as he had struck, leaving residents to wonder whether he had ever existed at all.

We’ll also ponder the concept of identical cousins and puzzle over a midnight stabbing.

Intro:

Enterprise, Ala., erected an $1,800 monument to the boll weevil.

In the late 1930s, a plaster mannequin named Cynthia archly toured the New York social scene.

Sources for our feature on the mad gasser of Mattoon:

Bob Ladendorf and Robert E. Bartholomew, “The Mad Gasser of Mattoon: How the Press Created an Imaginary Chemical Weapons Attack,” Skeptical Inquirer 26:4 (July/August 2002), 50-54.

Robert E. Bartholomew and Jeffrey S. Victor, “A Social-Psychological Theory of Collective Anxiety Attacks: The ‘Mad Gasser’ Reexamined,” Sociological Quarterly 45:2 (March 2004), 229–248.

Robert E. Bartholomew and Erich Goode, “Phantom Assailants & the Madness of Crowds: The Mad Gasser of Botetourt County,” Skeptic 7:4 (1999), 50.

D.M. Johnson, “The ‘Phantom Anesthetist’ of Mattoon: A Field Study of Mass Hysteria,” Journal of Abnormal Psychology 40:2 (April 1945), 175-186.

Debbie Carlson, “The Mattoon Mad Gasser — Looking Back at a Textbook Case of Mass Hysteria,” Belt Magazine, June 4, 2015.

Romeo Vitelli, “The Mad Gasser of Mattoon,” James Randi Educational Foundation Swift Blog, April 23, 2011.

Robert E. Bartholomew, Little Green Men, Meowing Nuns and Head-Hunting Panics, 2001.

Mike Dash, Borderlands, 2000.

Listener mail:

Wikipedia, “Battle of Blair Mountain” (accessed December 2, 2016).

Wikipedia, “Shelton Brothers Gang” (accessed December 2, 2016).

Wikipedia, “Tulsa race riot” (accessed December 2, 2016).

Wikipedia, “The Patty Duke Show” (accessed December 2, 2016).

The Dubliners — The Sick Note:

The Corries — The Bricklayer’s Song:

This week’s lateral thinking puzzle was devised by Greg, who gathered these corroborating links (warning — these spoil the puzzle).

You can listen using the player above, download this episode directly, or subscribe on iTunes or Google Play Music or via the RSS feed at http://feedpress.me/futilitycloset.

Please consider becoming a patron of Futility Closet — on our Patreon page you can pledge any amount per episode, and we’ve set up some rewards to help thank you for your support. You can also make a one-time donation on the Support Us page of the Futility Closet website.

Many thanks to Doug Ross for the music in this episode.

If you have any questions or comments you can reach us at podcast@futilitycloset.com. Thanks for listening!

Podcast Episode 131: Escape From Libby Prison

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Libby_Prison,_Richmond,_05-1865_-_NARA_-_533454.tif

Libby Prison was one of the most infamous prison camps of the Civil War — thousands of Union prisoners were packed together in a converted warehouse, facing months or years of starvation and abuse. The Confederates thought the prison was escape-proof, and in this week’s episode of the Futility Closet podcast we’ll show how a determined group of prisoners set out to prove them wrong.

We’ll also duel with a barrel and puzzle over why an admitted forger would be found innocent.

Intro:

Iowa attorney Townsend M. Zink directed that his money be used to build a library that would exclude women and stock books written only by men.

In the early 1960s, the American Automobile Association forgot to include Seattle on its road map of the United States.

Sources for our feature on the Libby Prison breakout:

Joseph Wheelan, Libby Prison Breakout, 2010.

Jonathan Franklin William Vance, Encyclopedia of Prisoners of War and Internment, 2006.

Bruce Klee, “Libby Prison,” Civil War Times Illustrated 37:7 (February 1999), 32-38.

Steven Trent Smith, “The Great Libby Prison Breakout,” Civil War Times 49:4 (August 2010), 46-53.

Michael Morgan, “Breakout From Rat Hell,” Civil War Times Illustrated 40:5 (October 2001), 28-37.

A.G. Hamilton, “Story of the Famous Tunnel Escape From Libby Prison,” 1893.

Emeric Szabad, “Diary in Libby Prison,” Fraser’s Magazine for Town and Country 77:459 (March 1868), 385-406.

Frank E. Moran, “Libby Prison’s Tunnel,” Toledo Blade, Nov. 9, 1882.

This diagram accompanied “Colonel Rose’s Tunnel at Libby Prison,” Century Illustrated Monthly Magazine, March 1888 (click to enlarge):

https://books.google.com/books?id=fdNPAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA770

Second feature:

“Five Accidents, But Only One Indemnity,” American Lawyer, August 1906.

This story was a staple of vaudeville, made most famous, I think, by Fred Allen. But Allen was 12 when this version appeared, and 1 when the joke made its debut.

This week’s lateral thinking puzzle was contributed by listener Adam Behring, who sent this corroborating link (warning — this spoils the puzzle).

You can listen using the player above, download this episode directly, or subscribe on iTunes or Google Play Music or via the RSS feed at http://feedpress.me/futilitycloset.

Please consider becoming a patron of Futility Closet — on our Patreon page you can pledge any amount per episode, and we’ve set up some rewards to help thank you for your support. You can also make a one-time donation on the Support Us page of the Futility Closet website.

Many thanks to Doug Ross for the music in this episode.

If you have any questions or comments you can reach us at podcast@futilitycloset.com. Thanks for listening!

Podcast Episode 130: The Unlikely Ultramarathoner

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cliff_young.jpg
Image: Wikimedia Commons

Australia’s Westfield ultramarathon had a surprise entrant in 1983: A 61-year-old potato farmer named Cliff Young joined a field of elite professional runners for the 500-mile race from Sydney to Melbourne. In this week’s episode of the Futility Closet podcast we’ll describe Young’s fortunes in the race and the heart, tenacity, and humor that endeared him to a nation.

We’ll also learn the difference between no and nay and puzzle over a Japanese baby shortage.

Intro:

Thomas Wedders exhibited his 7.5-inch nose throughout Yorkshire in the 1770s.

Two meteorologists played ping-pong on a solid block of snow atop Scotland’s Ben Nevis in 1902.

Sources for our feature on Cliff Young:

Julietta Jameson, Cliffy: The Cliff Young Story, 2013.

Phil Essam, ed., I’ve Finally Found My Hero, 2016.

Matthew Ricketson, “Cliff’s Not Finished Yet,” The Age, Nov. 29, 1983.

J. Freeman, “Cliff Calls It a Day,” Telegraph, April 17, 1985.

Greg Truman, “A Long-Running Favorite Draws to an End,” The Advertiser, May 5, 1986.

Louise Evans, “Cliff, the Battler’s Hero, Refuses to Shuffle Off Into the Sunset,” Sydney Morning Herald, June 4, 1988.

R. Reed, “Westfield Highway Closed to Cliff: Old Shuffler ‘Saved’ From Himself,” Sunday Herald, March 11, 1990.

G. Legg, “Cliff, 70, Has Enough Puff for 170km,” Courier-Mail, May 23, 1992.

Derek Ballantine, “For Cliff, a Long Road to Nowhere,” The Advertiser, April 10, 1993.

Alan Rider, “‘Where’s Cliffy?’: In Hobart Run-Walk!,” Hobart Mercury, April 20, 1993.

Tony Baker, “An Epic of Eccentricity,” Hobart Mercury, April 25, 1997.

“End of the Road for Cliff,” Sydney Morning Herald, Nov. 3, 2003.

Graeme Leech, “Shy Runner Shuffled Into a Nation’s Heart,” The Australian, Nov. 7, 2003.

Charles Happell, “A Gumbooted Forrest Gump, Cliff Young Ran His Own Race,” The Australian, March 23, 2013.

“Running Legend’s Cup Will Return to District,” Colac Herald, April 17, 2015.

Here’s Neil Kearney’s 1983 documentary Cliffy, made shortly after Young’s victory and showing his trademark shuffling gait:

And Clock End Films made a TV movie about Young in 2013. (Thanks, Julie.)

Listener mail:

“Frenemies — Churchill’s Planned 1945 Surprise Attack on the Soviets,” Military History Now, Oct. 15, 2012.

Wikipedia, “Operational Unthinkable” (accessed Nov. 18, 2016).

Historical Board Gaming: Operation Unthinkable Custom Map & Rules.

BoardGameGeek: Castle Itter.

Digital Capricorn Studios: Castle Itter.

National Public Radio, “No, Yes, Definitely: On the Rise of ‘No, Totally’ as Linguistic Quirk,” Morning Edition, April 12, 2015.

Kathryn Schulz, “What Part of ‘No, Totally’ Don’t You Understand?”, New Yorker, April 7, 2015.

This week’s lateral thinking puzzle was contributed by listener Jon Sweitzer-Lamme, who sent this corroborating link (warning: this spoils the puzzle).

You can listen using the player above, download this episode directly, or subscribe on iTunes or Google Play Music or via the RSS feed at http://feedpress.me/futilitycloset.

Please consider becoming a patron of Futility Closet — on our Patreon page you can pledge any amount per episode, and we’ve set up some rewards to help thank you for your support. You can also make a one-time donation on the Support Us page of the Futility Closet website.

Many thanks to Doug Ross for the music in this episode.

If you have any questions or comments you can reach us at podcast@futilitycloset.com. Thanks for listening!

Podcast Episode 129: The Voynich Manuscript

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Voynich_Manuscript_(159).jpg

In 1912, bookseller Wilfrid Voynich discovered an illustrated manuscript that was written in a mysterious alphabet that had never been seen before. The text bears the hallmarks of natural language, but no one has ever been able to determine its meaning. In this week’s episode of the Futility Closet podcast we’ll learn about the Voynich manuscript, which has been bewildering scholars for more than a century.

We’ll also ponder some parliamentary hostages and puzzle over a tormenting acquisition.

Intro:

In 1851, George Merryweather invented the Tempest Prognosticator, a rack of bottled leeches who would ring a bell when a storm approached.

Between 1884 and 1896, visitors to Coney Island could stay in a 31-room hotel shaped like an elephant.

Sources for our feature on the Voynich manuscript:

Gerry Kennedy and Rob Churchill, The Voynich Manuscript, 2004.

“Voynich Manuscript,” Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Yale University.

Klaus Schmeh, “The Voynich Manuscript: The Book Nobody Can Read,” Skeptical Inquirer 35:1 (January/February 2011).

Diego R. Amancio et al., “Probing the Statistical Properties of Unknown Texts: Application to the Voynich Manuscript,” PLoS One, July 2, 2013.

Andreas Schinner, “The Voynich Manuscript: Evidence of the Hoax Hypothesis,” Cryptologia 31:2 (March 2007).

Marcelo A. Montemurro and Damián H. Zanette, “Keywords and Co-Occurrence Patterns in the Voynich Manuscript: An Information-Theoretic Analysis,” PLoS One, June 21, 2013.

Bec Crew, “Researcher Finds Evidence That the ‘World’s Most Mysterious Book’ Is an Elaborate Hoax,” Science Alert, Sept. 23, 2016.

Melissa Hogenboom, “Mysterious Voynich Manuscript Has ‘Genuine Message’,” BBC News, June 22, 2013.

Reed Johnson, “The Unread: The Mystery of the Voynich Manuscript,” New Yorker, July 9, 2013.

Rich McCormick, “Decrypting the Most Mysterious Book in the World,” The Verge, Feb. 28, 2014.

Wikipedia has scans of the entire manuscript, sortable by page, folio, or topic.

Listener mail:

Wikipedia, “Hostage MP” (accessed Nov. 12, 2016).

Wikipedia, “State Opening of Parliament” (accessed Nov. 12, 2016).

Matt Field, “Queen’s Speech: Your Guide to All the Parliamentary Pomp and Pageantry,” Guardian, May 27, 2015.

“Intertwined Love Story: Twins Who Married Twins,” Morning Edition, National Public Radio, May 28, 2010.

“Identical Twins Marry, Give Birth to Identical Twins,” Telegraph, July 22, 2008.

Danielle Centoni, “The Secret Life of Pears (in Brandy),” Oregon Live, September 2011.

This week’s lateral thinking puzzle was contributed by listener Jake Koethler.

You can listen using the player above, download this episode directly, or subscribe on iTunes or Google Play Music or via the RSS feed at http://feedpress.me/futilitycloset.

Please consider becoming a patron of Futility Closet — on our Patreon page you can pledge any amount per episode, and we’ve set up some rewards to help thank you for your support. You can also make a one-time donation on the Support Us page of the Futility Closet website.

Many thanks to Doug Ross for the music in this episode.

If you have any questions or comments you can reach us at podcast@futilitycloset.com. Thanks for listening!

Podcast Episode 128: The Battle for Castle Itter

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Schloss_Itter_in_1979.jpg
Image: Wikimedia Commons

The closing days of World War II witnessed a bizarre battle with some unlikely allies: American and German soldiers joined forces to rescue a group of French prisoners from a medieval castle in the Austrian Alps. In this week’s episode of the Futility Closet podcast we’ll follow the Battle for Castle Itter, the only time that Allies and Germans fought together in the war.

We’ll also dodge another raft of aerial bombs and puzzle over a bottled pear.

Intro:

In 1917, Royal Flying Corps trainee Graham Donald fell out of his plane at the top of a loop.

In 1750, the 1st Earl of Hardwicke installed an artificial ruin near his country house, Wimpole Hall.

Sources for our feature on the Battle for Castle Itter:

Stephen Harding, The Last Battle, 2013.

Stephen Harding, “The Battle for Castle Itter,” World War II 23:3 (August/September 2008), 38-45.

George Hodge, “The Last Battle: When U.S. and German Soldiers Joined Forces in the Waning Hours of World War II in Europe,” Military Review 94:4 (July/August 2014), 100.

John G. Mayer, “12th Men Free French Big-Wigs,” 12th Armored Division Hellcat News, May 26, 1945.

Andrew Roberts, “World War II’s Strangest Battle: When Americans and Germans Fought Together,” Daily Beast, May 12, 2013.

Bethany Bell, “The Austrian Castle Where Nazis Lost to German-US Force,” BBC News, May 7, 2015.

Listener mail:

Roadside America, “Omaha, Nebraska: Plaque: Japanese Balloon Bomb Exploded Here,”.

“B-52 Accidentally Bombs Kansas Lake,” Aero News Network, Dec. 16, 2006.

Bill Kaczor, “Bombs Rained on Florida Family in 1944,” Los Angeles Times, Aug. 14, 1994.

Wikipedia, “MOVE: 1985 bombing” (accessed Nov. 4, 2016).

Wikipedia, “Pavlovsk Experimental Station” (accessed Nov. 4, 2016).

Ian Crofton, A Curious History of Food and Drink, 2014.

Wikipedia, “1958 Tybee Island Mid-Air Collision” (accessed Nov. 4, 2016).

This week’s lateral thinking puzzles were adapted from the Soviet popular science magazine Kvant and the 2000 book Lateral Mindtrap Puzzles and contributed by listener Steve Scheuermann. We refer to this image in the second puzzle:

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Williams_Christ_Obstbrand.JPG
Image: Wikimedia Commons

You can listen using the player above, download this episode directly, or subscribe on iTunes or Google Play Music or via the RSS feed at http://feedpress.me/futilitycloset.

Please consider becoming a patron of Futility Closet — on our Patreon page you can pledge any amount per episode, and we’ve set up some rewards to help thank you for your support. You can also make a one-time donation on the Support Us page of the Futility Closet website.

Many thanks to Doug Ross for the music in this episode.

If you have any questions or comments you can reach us at podcast@futilitycloset.com. Thanks for listening!

Podcast Episode 127: Rowing Across the Atlantic

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:De_Fox_(boat).jpg

In 1896 two New Jersey clam diggers made a bold bid for fame: They set out to cross the North Atlantic in a rowboat, a feat that had never been accomplished before. In this week’s episode of the Futility Closet podcast we’ll follow the adventure of George Harbo and Frank Samuelsen, which one newspaper called “the most remarkable event in the way of ocean navigation that ever transpired.”

We’ll also meet some military mammals and puzzle over a thwarted burglar.

Intro:

The score for Telemann’s Gulliver Suite includes “Lilliputian” and “Brobdingnagian” note values.

In 1964 Zambia announced a rather low-tech space program.

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:De_bemanning_der_Fox.jpg

Sources for our feature on Harbo and Samuelsen:

David W. Shaw, Daring the Sea, 1998.

William Longyard, A Speck on the Sea, 2003.

David W. Shaw, “A Fool’s Errand, but a Nautical Landmark,” Scandinavian Review 102:1 (Spring 2015), 46-60.

“To Row Across the Atlantic,” New York World, Feb. 13, 1896, 16.

“To Cross Ocean in Rowboat,” New York Herald, June 6, 1896, 7.

The log of the Fox.

“Over the Sea With Oars,” New York World, Aug. 2, 1896, 10.

“The Fox Arrives at Havre,” Daily Telegraph, Aug 7, 1896.

“They Rowed to Havre,” National Police Gazette, Aug. 22, 1896.

“The Following Is Worth Reading,” National Police Gazette, Sept. 12, 1896.

“Harbo and Samuelson and the Tiny Boat in Which They Rowed Across the Atlantic,” New York Herald, March 21, 1897, 2.

Andy Philpott and Geoff Leyland, “Rowing to Barbados,” OR/MS Today, April 2006.

Thao Hua, “Manager Backs Atlantic Crossing,” Pensions & Investments 36:12 (June 9, 2008), 8.

BBC News, “Artemis Rowing Crew Smashes Transatlantic Record,” July 31, 2010.

Listener mail:

Yuko, Cher Ami, 2016.

Leah Tams, “How Did Animals (Even Slugs) Serve in World War I?”, National Museum of American History, Nov. 14, 2014.

Jessica Talarico, “15 Animals That Went to War,” Imperial War Museums (accessed Oct. 22, 2016).

History.com, “War Animals From Horses to Glowworms: 7 Incredible Facts,” Dec. 22, 2011.

Nick Tarver, “World War One: The Circus Animals That Helped Britain,” BBC News, Nov. 11, 2013.

U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Program (accessed Oct. 22, 2016).

Mark Strauss, “These Are the Brave and Fluffy Cats Who Served in World War I,” io9, Aug. 22, 2014.

This week’s lateral thinking puzzle was contributed by listener Tommy Honton, who sent this corroborating link (warning — this spoils the puzzle).

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