The Belgian village of Passchendaele before and after the Third Battle of Ypres, 1917. Aerial photography showed 1 million shell holes in one square mile.
After the battle, the following notice was found in a dugout full of dead British soldiers. It was signed by their Australian commander:
- This position will be held and section will remain here until relieved.
- The enemy cannot be allowed to interfere with this program.
- If the section cannot remain here alive it will remain here dead.
- Should any man through shell shock or such cause attempt to surrender he will remain here dead.
- Finally the position, as stated, will be held.
Clemenceau said, “War is a series of catastrophes that results in a victory.”